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The gene TRHR encodes for the protein called thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. TRHR controls the levels of thyroxin which has a role in skeletal muscle health. Polymorphisms in TRHR are associated with the amount of lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle health. This gene is associated with the amount of LBM and muscle strength.
The gene VDR codes for the protein called Vitamin D receptor. VDR controls the calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood. The levels of calcium and phosphorus are very important for muscle mass, strength, and function. Genetic polymorphisms in VDR are associated with muscle health. This gene is associated with the strength and mass of your muscles as well as bone strength and risk of bone injury.
The gene VEGF codes for the protein called vascular endothelial growth factor. VEGF is very important for blood vessel growth to support muscle health. The ability to increase the amount of blood supply during exercise will increase your maximal oxygen consumption and muscle performance. Genetic polymorphisms in VEGF are associated with endurance and recovery from intense exercise. This test is associated with higher aerobic exercise performance and greater endurance.
The ACE gene encodes an enzyme that indirectly increases blood pressure by causing blood vessels to constrict thereby regulating inflammation, red blood cell synthesis, tissue oxygenation, and muscle efficiency. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ACE gene influence skeletal muscle strength, metabolic efficiency, and electrolyte reabsorption. This analysis determines if a person is likely to experience less cardiac strain/fatigue during training or if they have increased power/strength gains but at a higher cardiac strain.
The ADRB3 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the small intestine, adipose tissue and vascular endothelium where they are involved in lipolysis, glucose uptake, cardio-inhibition and relaxation of colon, esophagus, and bladder. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB3 gene have been shown to affect endurance. This analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced endurance or is considered normal.
The ADRB2 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), heart, kidney, and muscle where they are involved in smooth muscle relaxation (e.g. bronchodilation). Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB2 gene have been shown to affect endurance and risk for obesity. This analysis determines if a person is likely to have higher endurance and muscle function or reduced VO2 max (a measure of the maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use) and increased risk of obesity.
The BDKRB2 gene encodes a protein called the bradykinin receptor that is involved in the control of blood pressure and the increased blood flow in our blood vessels. It is also associated with muscle contraction and the ability of cells to absorb fluid. Genetic polymorphisms related to the BDKRB2 gene have been shown to affect athletic endurance. This analysis determines if a person has increased endurance and muscle efficiency.
The ADRB1 gene encodes a protein found in cardiac tissues and regulates heart function and metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB1 gene have been shown to affect a person’s resting heart rate. This analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced cardiovascular performance or is considered normal.
The ADRB2 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), CNS, heart, kidney, and muscle where they are involved in smooth muscle relaxation (e.g. bronchodilation). Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB2 gene have been shown to affect endurance and risk for obesity. This analysis determines if a person is likely to have a higher endurance or reduced VO2 max (a measure of the maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use) and increased risk of obesity.
The GDF5 gene encodes the growth differentiation factor 5, which is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and also known as BMP14. GDF5 has a strong role in bone and joint health. Variations in GDF5 are associated with osteoarthritis. This assessment determines the risk associated with joint health and the risk of injury from intense exercise.
The COL5a1 gene encodes the protein called Collagen Type V that is the main protein found in bone. This protein is also found in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. Genetic polymorphisms related to COL5a1 are associated with endurance and joint health. The assessment determines if a person should consider preventive exercises to prevent trouble with their joints.
The eNOS gene is also known as NOS3 and encodes for a protein called endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This protein is involved in regulating blood vessels allowing more blood flow to your muscles. Genetic polymorphisms of eNOS are associated with athletic power. This gene is associated with athletics that require power over endurance.
The EDN1 gene encodes the protein endothelin 1 which is a protein found in blood vessels that function to control your blood pressure. Genetic variations of EDN1 are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. This gene determines how effective training can be on improving your cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.
This is the most studied fitness gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes for the protein alpha-actinin 3 and this gene provides instructions for making a specific muscle protein that impacts the ability of skeletal muscles to produce force at a high velocity. This is crucial for success in sports requiring power and short bursts of speed (sprinting). This analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced performance in power and sprint activities or is considered normal.
The AGT gene encodes a protein called angiotensinogen (also known as serpin peptidase) that is involved in maintaining blood pressure and vasoconstriction. Genetic polymorphisms related to the AGT gene have been shown to affect power sports performance. This analysis determines if a person is likely to have increased activity of angiotensin II, which acts as a skeletal muscle growth factor.
The MSTN gene encodes the protein called myostatin. Myostatin is produced in muscle and controls muscle growth. With less myostatin, there will be significantly more muscle mass and those individuals will be stronger than normal. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with different amounts of muscle mass and the ability to produce peak power and increased strength. This gene is associated with your ability to build strength.
The SOST gene codes for the protein sclerostin that is produced by the cells that make up your bone (osteocytes). Sclerostin has a role in controlling the density of your bone. Scientists have done studies to look at the variants of this gene in young and older individuals and found a significant correlation of bone density.
During exercise, oxidative stress is linked to muscle metabolism and muscle damage, because exercise increases free radical production. Tests indicate that some individuals are more protected from oxidative damage. The gene SOD2 encodes the protein superoxide dismutase-2. This is a protein found in the part of your cell that provides energy and also has a role in reducing the oxidative damage to cells. Genetic variations in SOD2 are associated with cell health and the ability to repair damage from intense exercise.
This gene is involved in controlling anti-oxidative function for cell health. Extensive studies of elite athletes have determined the variations of this gene that are associated with your ability to recover from sports. This test is associated with your ability to recover from intense exercise.
The IL-6 gene encodes the protein called interleukin-6 which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. These inflammatory compounds such as IL-6 have an important role in repairing our bodies from inflammation caused by intense exercise. Variations in IL-6 are associated with our ability in power sports to recover from the exertion. This gene is associated with recovery from the inflammation after power sports.
The CRP gene encodes the protein called C-Reactive Protein that is found in blood. The level of this protein reflects the amount of general inflammation in your body. The more prone you are to inflammation, the higher your levels of CRP are post-exercise. In addition, studies have found that CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular fitness and endurance.
The APOE gene encodes a protein involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the APOE gene have been shown to affect aging, fragility and physical fitness. This analysis determines if a person should increase activity levels to counter the effects of aging.
This gene is associated with fat mass and obesity due to its role in controlling appetite. Scientists have done studies that showed a strong correlation with variants of this gene and the incidence of obesity. The gene has a role in the feeling of "fullness" or satiety or lack thereof when eating.
The gene TCF7L2 encodes for the protein called "transcription factor 7-like-2" protein that has a role in controlling blood sugar levels. Genetic polymorphisms in TCF7L2 are associated with increased incidence of diabetes and weight gain. This gene can make you more or less sensitive to sugar in your diet and make you prone to weight gain.
This region on Chromosome 6 was identified by scientists after performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with over 125,000 individuals. They looked at the level of education attained and scores in math and English achievement tests in relation to the genetic variants. This is likely only one of the contributing genes to an individual's level of intelligence.
Scientists have found that this gene impacts learning and memory, which are key components in how we view intelligence. Genome-wide association studies have been done to identify genes that are strongly correlated with intelligence. The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) was identified this way and other evidence also supports its role in learning and memory. The association of this gene variant and intelligence was found to be true for both adolescents and adults. Multiple genes likely contribute to the human trait of memory.
Amphetamine, a prototypic drug of abuse, increases feelings of euphoria, energy, and attention in most people. However, some individuals experience a bad reaction to amphetamines or other drugs such as increased anxiety or dysphoria instead of euphoria. Scientists have found that the response you have may be genetic in origin. Studies have found that this gene, the opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays a role in substance use. The variations in OPRM1 gene can be broadened to nicotine in cigarettes and other drugs such as cannabis since the cannabinoid and opioid systems can interact.
This gene, FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is known as the “happy” or “bliss” gene. This gene regulates anandamide which is the body's own chemical molecule that enhances sensory pleasure such as hearing, vision, and skin sensations, as well as reduces pain. If you have one form of this gene (AA), your body produces 50% less FAAH, which means a slower breakdown of anandamide. Hence, the AA form causes people to have a stronger response to anandamide affecting the dopamine reward pathway and will result in feeling happier and less anxious. FAAH has a role in pain, depression, appetite, inflammation, and has been shown to be associated with risk in drug and alcohol abuse. Scientists have studied this variation in FAAH gene in association with the need for painkillers like oxycodone after surgery.
SLC6A2 is the norepinephrine transporter. Norepinephrine is an important chemical in your brain that allows communication between your cells. Scientists have found that norepinephrine plays a critical role in a person's response to stress and maintaining attention to tasks. Individual differences in this gene have been found to affect behavior, mood, and drug responses. After taking drugs such as amphetamines, norepinephrine has a role in increased positive mood.
The brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. Variations in this gene control the levels of the chemical serotonin in your brain. Serotonin is an important chemical in your brain that controls your mood. Scientists have used twin studies to find that the genetic component to high anxiety and compulsiveness is particularly high when these traits are first present at a young age.
Some people when they are exposed to cannabis suffer from motor impairment more so than others. Scientists have studied the AKT1 gene and its association with motor function. Scientists studied the relationship between motor response time and accuracy of response with exposure to cannabis. They found that THC had a different effect depending on the AKT1 gene result. This is likely because of this gene regulation on dopamine function. This gene variant “T” is associated with a less active version of the enzyme AKT1. AKT1 is RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase and has a large role in cell growth, differentiation and plasticity in the brain including its role in regulating dopamine in the brain.
RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling) is at very high levels in the brain and is responsible for controlling signaling between neurons. The protein first was identified as having a role in the panic response and anxiety in mice but then found to have the same role in people. Variants in RGS2 were found to be associated with anxiety and panic through behavior tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.
Are you an extrovert? Scientists have studied aspects of human behavior such as how out-going and impulsive you are and how motivated you are to seek novel experiences. These behaviors seem to go together and the brain chemical called dopamine is largely responsible for this group of behaviors.
How sensitive are you to pain? This is one of the genes that help explain why there are individual differences in our tolerance for pain. This gene GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase) has been found to have a role in shaping our response to painful stimuli and how much pain relief you may need after surgery or during childbirth.
Are you insensitive to pain? Sensing pain is important for our health. This gene codes for the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7 which is found in neurons that sense pain. If you have one form of this gene, you are more likely to be completely insensitive to pain. However, there are multiple genes that contribute to our sensitivity to pain.
Are you a warrior or a worrier? Individual people have very different thresholds for pain and response to stress. Scientists have found that variations in the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene which regulates the dopamine levels in the brain are associated with pain thresholds and mood. COMT is a key regulator of pain perception, cognitive function, and mood, by regulating the chemical in your brain called o-catecholamine. Concentrations of this chemical are critical for a lot of pathways in your brain. Scientists have found that people with the GG result have higher COMT enzymatic activity, therefore lower dopamine levels in the brain.
This gene is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1). This is the sensor in your body that is activated by pain from noxious heat and inflammation stimulation. It contributes to hypersensitivity to pain when you have tissue injury. For example, the correlation between joint damage and pain is strong, but there is often discordance between the degree of structural damage and the severity of the pain. Scientists have found variants in this gene can have consequences for how you respond to acute, chronic or neuropathic pain.